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It could be the solenoid and/or the carbon brushes. The starter you are working on has 4 contact brushes. If those brushes are worn, broken or burned, the starter will not turn and will burn the copper contacts on the rotor until it’s useless. That cap on the back end of the starter is easy to remove for brush inspection.
Wear disposable gloves because the carbon gets on everything. Spreads like graphite.

I had experienced an odd scenario with a similar Delco starter… I worked on a Massey Ferguson 135 for an orchard with the same symptoms described. At the end of the day, I found a vole or field mouse got into an open hole at the bottom of the bell housing and filled that bell housing full of bedding and crap that the starter gear pulled inside the windings and trashed the stater. All this was inside the starter motor housing. Not likely your issue… more validation that odd things will happen.
pictures below.
Soil Asphalt Fur Metal Rock


Burned rotor contacts
Food Ingredient Recipe Wood Rectangle
Sculpture Gas Engineering Building Machine

Automotive tire Bicycle part Rim Vehicle brake Gas


broken (plastic) contact holder
Automotive tire Gear Crankset Rim Gas

Automotive tire Wood Gear Font Automotive wheel system


Also found this contact holders, threaded hole, striped out
Automotive tire Rim Wood Gear Automotive wheel system
 

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Doesn’t matter how long it sat. You have applied electrical power to the starter… how long was the screw driver in contact (making the electrical connection instead of the solenoid)?

The starter rotor I pictured, the owner kept holding the key in the start position, because he said, “the longer I held it in start, the better chance it would start.” Terrible idea!!
You can see the ends of the rotor, copper contacts, are white. They burnt through the phenolic shims between contacts and shorted out to the adjacent contacts.

The rotor I pictured could be rewound and repaired. However, the cost for rewinding is far more than a complete new starter.
Check your brushes.
 
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