Hart-Parr Number 1

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    In 1892 at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin, two engineering students who were destined for agricultural greatness crossed paths. The names of these two students were names Charles W. Hart and Charles H. Parr. During their schooling, they took on an extra credit project with the goal of creating an internal combustion engine. Being that this was a mutual interest of theirs, it should come as no surprise that they completed this project, doing so a total of five times before graduating with honors.

    After graduation with financial backing acquired, these two men became Hart-Parr in 1897 and went on to build stationary engines that ran on gasoline. This was a successful venture and soon they outgrew their workspace, moving on to Charles City, Iowa, the place from which Hart hailed. With a new facility secured and money to run it in place, they shifted gears to the production of \"Gasoline Traction Engines\" in 1901. These machines later became known as the farm tractor, as it was within this facility\'s walls that such a machine was born.

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    The first gasoline traction engine they built, the Hart-Parr Number 1, operated on two cylinders and generated 17-30 horsepower (drawbar and pulley, respectively). With time and adaptations to the bore and stroke, they were able to increase these numbers to 22-40. From there they advanced their design to include both push-rod and overhead cam operated valves, which they called a rotary valve. In 1905, they moved to use of the overhead cam exclusively, which is standard in many internal combustion engines currently.

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    When the automobile industry began to demand gasoline and thus prices increased, Hart-Parr adapted their design once again and created a Kerosene engine. They did this by building a carburetor that added water to the combustion air and eliminated the knocking associated with engines running exclusively on kerosene. Use of this method by Hart-Parr was the first time during which water was used to control knocking in an internal combustion engine, and this technique is yet another of theirs that lives on today.

    It was until 1907 that their machines were known as gasoline traction engines, but soon the word \'tractor\' took over. It was used in Hart-Parr advertising at that time and the name stuck, and much like many of their designs, is used in the modern age. In 1908, Hart-Parr opened a series of offices which entered into trade agreements with foreign entities. Hart-Parr had gone international, all thanks to what began with the Hart-Parr No. 1 tractor, Serial No. 1205, which was the first commercially successful tractor which came to be in the birthplace of both Hart and the tractor-Charles City, Iowa.

    Over the next several years, Hart-Parr went on to introduce several other designs. These include the 30-60 \"Old Reliable\" which was produced until 1918 when the \"New Hart-Parr\" 12-25 model was born. This tractor then evolved to become the \"30\", then the 16-30 and lastly the 18-36. In 1921, the small 10-20 came to life followed by the large 22-40 in 1923. Three more tractor models came to be in the \'20\'s before Hart-Parr opted to merge into the Oliver Farm Equipment Company. Although this new company moved on from the original two-cylinder design, they still used the Hart-Parr name in their logo until the end of the \'30\'s proving that even when the design is done, a great name will still live on.

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    (This is a replica model, not an original.)

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