First, lose the starting fluid. This is a modern diesel with a very highly placed top compression ring. This type of engine is not at all tolerant of the explosive nature of starting fluid as it causes the ring to distort and roll into the cylinder when the starting fluid explodes. Do that enough and you will create a starting fluid dependent engine until you have it rebuilt.
To your problem. If the fuel pump solenoid clicks, and you have power to the pump, and the pump still does not run you need to check to see that the diesel line is not pressurized and the pump simply stopped because it is at operating pressure.
If the pump is not stopped because the line is up to pressure, and the pump will not prime the system, you need to pull the pump and have it bench tested. Likely due for replacement.
If you have pressure from the fuel pump to the injection pump, then you need to bleed the injection pump and possibly more than one injector line to clear the air locked condition.